Some of the most advanced medical tools that exist are now being deployed to help America's new veterans and wounded troops.
An Associated Press review of progress from a government-funded effort found surprising feats of surgery and bioengineering.
In Boston, scientists grew human ears in the lab and hope to test them on disfigured troops in about a year. In Pittsburgh, doctors used pig tissue to help regrow part of a thigh muscle that a Marine lost to a bomb.
In San Antonio and other cities, doctors are testing sprayed-on skin cells and lab-made sheets of skin to heal burns and other wounds.
Taxpayers funded much of this work, through the Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine, a coalition of top universities and medical centers.